Website Project (Vietnam)

Thank you Mr. Steve for your help and valuable course. Thanks for your help and support.

Website Project: Manal Jassem_sec22

Group members: 

Alyazi Helal – H00283271

Fatima Yousuf – H00256657

Salma Ahmed – H00283751

Manal Jassem -H00284191

Here is the link:




We live in one world and share things, ways, thoughts, habits, ideas and assume things about other people’s ways. Ethnocentrism is an expression and word in circles where inter-ethnic relations refer to people’s views, social issues, beliefs and the differences among group of people according to the tendency for each society to place its own culture at the Centre of things. In other words, it is closely related to the concepts of cultural relativity, “right” and “wrong” depending on the view of all beliefs, customs, and ethics are considered to the individual within his own social context. For example, what is considered moral in one society may be immoral in another so, ethnocentrism gives us an idea that no one has the right to judge another society’s behavior or customs because the things that may right for you, may wrong for me. In this post, I will write about the following questions which are related to ethnocentrism concept.


First: Find 3 things about a different culture that you didn’t know before.


1. Food and Eating Customs Differ Around the World


People eat different types of food in different countries. The way they eat is also different. Some countries have their meal at certain times whereas in some countries people eat anytime. In Nebal, the most common foods that have to be in every meal are rice, lentils, curry, and pickles. There are different types of lentils and they are salty in taste. Curry could be made out of potatoes, green vegetables, or beans. Pickles are always spicy.

In addition, Chinese food in Western countries, being surrounded by much loud talking and laughing is a typical ambience at a Chinese restaurant. Chinese people like a noisy and upbeat atmosphere when having a gathering and meals are no exception. People regard it as a rule of thumb that if the dishes of a restaurant are good and tasty then the restaurant will be noisy and busy.

Furthermore, In Korea, the staple food comprises rice, pickled fish and pickled vegetables. Fermented recipes are a popular part of their cuisine. They also savor noodles, which is a delicacy all over the world now. South Korean food is rich in spices and is cooked in sesame oil called “doenjang”, soy sauce and “gochujang” (red chili paste). Koreans swear by garlic and it is a must-have in all households; in fact, South Korea is the largest consumer of garlic.

2. Different culture greeting


A Chinese greeting features the right fist placed in the palm of the left hand and both shaken back and forth two or three times, it may be accompanied by a head nod or bow. The gesture may be used on meeting and parting, and when offering thanks or apologies While in India, it is common to see the Namaste greeting (or “Sat Sri Akal” for Sikhs) where the palms of the hands are pressed together and held near the heart with the head gently bowed.

Another example, Indonesia, a nation with a huge variety of cultures and religions, many greetings are expressed, from the formalized greeting of the highly stratified and hierarchical Javanese to the more egalitarian and practical greetings of outer islands.

3.   What hand gestures mean in different countries


Thumbs up, this widely recognized sign of approval or agreement is actually used as an insult in Bangladesh. In certain parts of the Middle East, thumbs-up is definitely a highly offensive thumbs-down.


The horn fingers, in USA “the horn fingers” is adopted by rockers and it is a sign of approval, rock on! Hook ’em Horns is the slogan and hand signal of the University of Texas at Austin. But in many Mediterranean and Latin countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Spain, Italy and Portugal, to make this sign at someone is to tell them that their spouse is cheating on them.


The “V” Sign, this sign has two formats: one with the palm faced outwards, and another with the palm inwards. In the US, both ways refer to “victory” and peace: protesters against the Vietnam War and activists adopted the gesture as a sign of peace. In other places, such as in the UK, Australia and South Africa, the same gesture with the back of the hand facing the other person is considered to be an extremely insulting.

Second: What are some problems with ethnocentrism in the UAE?


Firstly, in my opinion I see that UAE society has an ethnocentrism in not being on time is not necessary. Many Emirates believe is not important to come on time, for example, during family gathering, college classes, meetings and sometime being late at work. So, they see it is not a problem or wrong behavior because they have an inter-ethnic relations that being on time is not very important and it is right for them. However, in many Europe countries like Australia, Germany and UK, they are very serious with time and respect it and it is very important to do things on time for them. As a result, they see that not being on time is problem and it is a wrong moral while in the UAE is quite not wrong.


Another problem, the connections or “Wasta” is very common problem and it has a high ethnocentrism in UAE society. I lot of people follow this style. They exploit their work’s positions, family’s names and fame to finish their interests and forget others needs or rights. As a result, it affects in social classes and creates differentiation  among people. Sometime it can be good for helping poor people or humanitarian situations such as disabilities and special needs, but using “Wasta” for personal interests or just to help who I know and give them preferences just because they are my friends or relatives and forget others who need as well help, it become justice and bring negative results to community.


Third: How could these problems be overcome?


Time problem in the UAE can improve by providing an effective awareness for people about the importance of respect the time by organizing campaigns by managers, give rewards, promotions and incentives for people who concern to attend on time, make public encouragement speeches leading by UAE’s leaders and arrange activities or workshop about time.

UAE started to solve Connections “Wasta” problem since 2011. For example, a federal anti-corruption law has been drafted and is expected to be ratified soon. This law is expected to call for the establishment of a Federal Authority for Combating Corruption and for measures to protect whistle-blowers.- See more at:

Three Colours Stories 

Three Colours Stories

1- Alvie eats soup story

This type of story shows one type of the Three Colours Worldview which is Honor/ shame Societies. There are some examples that illustrate the shame in Alvie’s story, for example, when Alvie’s dad said “Alvie granny was a world-famous chef”. This attitude shows how Alvie’s dad feel of shame because his son only eat soup whereas his grandmother is a famous chef. In addition to that, when grandmother sent foods as a gift to Alvie (grandson), Alvie’s dad lied when he wrote the letter to his mother by writing that Alvie loved the food while he did not.


2- Robot racers story

The scenario of this story clarifies another type of the Three Colours Worldview which is innocence/ guilty societies because Tanktop cheats Squeaky. For example, Tanktop stoles Cyber Sid’s memory chip. In addition, Tanktop rest Betty Byte’s build –in alarm clock to let Squeaky be late from the race and beings the winner. Added to that, Tanktop creates a lot of problems for Squeaky. For instance, he puts nails, oil, and cuts Squeaky’s telescopic arms. However, in the end of the story, Squeaky won the race which indicate that being cheat is always loser and being honest is always winner.



The scenario of this story explains another type of the Three Colours Worldview which is power/ fear. According to the story, the mouse was very arrogant. He exploits his relationship with the Gruffalo to fear the snake and the fox. When the mouse describes the Gruffalo, he said, “he has a terrible tusks, and terrible claws and terrible teeth in his terrible jaws” which makes the snake and fox to be afraid. In addition, he used many characteristics to describe the Gruffalo like his eyes are orange, his tongue is black and he has purple prickles all over his back in order to create fear and make a sense of power.

Group’s Members

1. Manal Jassem – H00284191

2. Alyazi Helal – H00283271

3. Fatima Yousuf – H00256657

4. Salma Ahmed – H00283751

Three Colours Worldview 

My was 

a) Honor/ Shame (7)

b) Guilt/ Innocence (9)  

c) Power/ Fear (7) 

Here are 5 views that refers to my personality interpretation of reality or basic view of life: 

1) Don’t blame the individual in public even when it’s his/ her fault.

2) Rely on verbal commitment to build relationship.

3) Places higher value on the pursuit of group goals.

4) Fairness, consistency, and transparency are important.

5) Rewards performance based on strong loyalty and compliance. 

Hofstede’s Six Dimensions✨⭐️ Team Work Task ⭐️✨

Hofstede’s Six Dimensions


According to Greert Hofstede “culture is the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from another. The category can refer to nations, regions within or across nations, ethnicities, religions, occupations, organizations, or the genders”.Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a context for multicultural communication. It defines the effects of s society’s culture in the beliefs of its members, and how these beliefs relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.

1- Power distance ( PDI)

Refers to the way in which power is distributed and the extent to which the less powerful accept that power is distributed unequally. For instance, China has a score of 80 power distance whereas Brazil has score a 69.


2- Individualism and collectivism ( IDV)

Individualism: People taking care of themselves, self-orientation, individual goals and everyone has a right to private life with “I” mentality. For example, the UAE has 25of individualism while US has of individualism.

Collectivism: Loyal to group, Care of family, communities, mentality country with “We” mentality. For example, Korea is very loyal to their families and fellow members and people feel a sense of obligation not just to their immediate. For instance, Germany can be considered as individualistic with a relatively high score (67) on the scale of Hofstede compared to a country like Guatemala where they have strong collectivism (6 on the scale).


3- Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)

It is a state wherein results and conditions are unknown or changeable. Moreover, uncertainty avoiding cultures try to reduce the possibility of such circumstances by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; ‘there can only be one Truth and we have it’. For example, the UAE has a score of 80 in uncertainty avoidance while Australia has a score of 57. 


4- Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)

Masculinity: is the trait which emphasize ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. It is greater focus on the quality of life, relationships and elements of life. Femininity: is the trait which stress caring and nurturing behaviors, sexuality equality. Environment awareness and more fluid gender roles. For example, France has a lower percent of masculinity which is 43, but Japan has a higher percent which is 95.

5- Long term orientation vs. short term orientation (LTO)

In Long term orientation people prepare for future. Also, they have ability to adapt traditions in changed condition, and they have perseverance in achieving result. For example, Iran has a sore 14 in long term orientation, and Canada has a score of 36. But, In short term orientation the tradition and norms are more important. In addition, people in short term orientation focus on achieving quick results instead of long term orientation. 


6- Indulgence vs. restraint (IND)

Indulgence stands for a society that lets relatively free gratification of basic and natural human pushes related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and controls it by means of strict social norms. Restraint stands for a society that defeats enjoyment of needs and controls it by means of strict social rules. For instance, Australia has a score 71 in indulgence vs. restraint while Malaysia has a score of 57.



Geert Hofstede: the 6 Dimensions of National Culture


Group members:-

Alyazi Helal H00283271

Fatima Yousuf H00256657

Manal Jassem H00284191

Salma Ahmed H00283751

Something that represent me 

I chose the following contexts which I see that represent me:-

1- Close personal relationships 

In my life, I have many friends from the school and college. However, I like to have some friends that are very close to me. They close to me as my family.They understand me very well, think like me, share each other the happiness and sadnesses. I have close persons who I can talk with them without barriers. I consider my friends as one of my priority to feel safe after my family. 
2- Team work preferred



I see this context represents me because I like working with others and hearing from them closely. I like to define others ideas, get feedback from them to improve myself. I believe it is a chance for me to learn new things from others experiences. 

3- Better response to visual information 



When I want to understand something, mostly I search pictures, videos or audio recording to comprehend things. I like to see the objects or information with motion picture photography, visual presentation and graphs. I believe my brain will save more ideas or information for a long period with visual information.

High & Low Context Cultures

I repost this post again because when I checked it, it involved the answers twice. So, I hope it seems better 🙂



  1. Strong sense of insiders and outsiders H


  1. Specific information exists L


  1. Informal L


  1. Team and family activities preferred H


  1. Focus on results L


  1. Transparency expected L


  1. A lot of confidential information H


  1. Rules and regulations are easily accessible L


  1. Close personal relationships H


  1. General information H


  1. Elders/authoritative figures in control H


  1. “Have a go at it” philosophy L


  1. Individual responsibility L


  1. Concerned about ‘losing’  face H


  1. Expertise valued L


  1. Who you know is important H


  1. Focus on task H


  1. Emphasis on words and text L


  1. Strong sense of family H


  1. What you know is important H


  1. Gender roles clearly defined H


  1. Polite people admired H


  1. Reserved H


  1. Individual freedom valued L


  1. Strong sense of honour H


  1. Short term relationships L


  1. Process more important than product H


  1. Privacy (even when dealing with one’s own family)  highly valued H


  1. Public admission of wrongdoing expected H


  1. Strong sense of respect H


  1. Better response to visual information H


  1. Gender roles less fixed L


  1. No direct eye contact H


  1. Strong sense of fairness L


  1. Verbal agreements H


  1. Values logic over feeling L


  1. Very rare marriage with outsiders H


  1. Clear division of responsibilities at work L


  1. Written contracts L


  1. Public criticism insulting H

Culture Clash🖼 


2- The American businesswoman reaction indicate that they finished the report and they realize the importance of being on time. Also, it might reflect that Japanese businessman like to discuss and listen to employees perceptions, feelings and want to build relationship. For example, many employees like to build long-relationship. 

3- I think is not nice to talk about their work at the party, they came to have a fun and talk together.

4- I agree with the manager’s rule because they were negligent and did not care about the time. And, He did his duty as manager 

This will lead to make them more committed and follow the work rules strictly. 

5- Spanish secretary did not committed with a time given to send the email. She was very late and negligent her duty. She did mistake which might lead to deduct from her salary. She should be attentive and responsible. 

6- Personally, using the hot towel to wipe my hands is normal if I do not have tissue to clean my hands. However, after wiping my hands I will not use it again to wipe my face because might the towel is not clean and is not polite behavior front of my colleagues and this behavior might cause a strong feeling of dislike, but in some culture is common and acceptable.