According to Greert Hofstede “culture is the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from another. The category can refer to nations, regions within or across nations, ethnicities, religions, occupations, organizations, or the genders”.Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a context for multicultural communication. It defines the effects of s society’s culture in the beliefs of its members, and how these beliefs relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.
1- Power distance ( PDI)
Refers to the way in which power is distributed and the extent to which the less powerful accept that power is distributed unequally. For instance, China has a score of 80 power distance whereas Brazil has score a 69.
2- Individualism and collectivism ( IDV)
Individualism: People taking care of themselves, self-orientation, individual goals and everyone has a right to private life with “I” mentality. For example, the UAE has 25of individualism while US has of individualism.
Collectivism: Loyal to group, Care of family, communities, mentality country with “We” mentality. For example, Korea is very loyal to their families and fellow members and people feel a sense of obligation not just to their immediate. For instance, Germany can be considered as individualistic with a relatively high score (67) on the scale of Hofstede compared to a country like Guatemala where they have strong collectivism (6 on the scale).
3- Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
It is a state wherein results and conditions are unknown or changeable. Moreover, uncertainty avoiding cultures try to reduce the possibility of such circumstances by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; ‘there can only be one Truth and we have it’. For example, the UAE has a score of 80 in uncertainty avoidance while Australia has a score of 57.
4- Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)
Masculinity: is the trait which emphasize ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. It is greater focus on the quality of life, relationships and elements of life. Femininity: is the trait which stress caring and nurturing behaviors, sexuality equality. Environment awareness and more fluid gender roles. For example, France has a lower percent of masculinity which is 43, but Japan has a higher percent which is 95.
5- Long term orientation vs. short term orientation (LTO)
In Long term orientation people prepare for future. Also, they have ability to adapt traditions in changed condition, and they have perseverance in achieving result. For example, Iran has a sore 14 in long term orientation, and Canada has a score of 36. But, In short term orientation the tradition and norms are more important. In addition, people in short term orientation focus on achieving quick results instead of long term orientation.
6- Indulgence vs. restraint (IND)
Indulgence stands for a society that lets relatively free gratification of basic and natural human pushes related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and controls it by means of strict social norms. Restraint stands for a society that defeats enjoyment of needs and controls it by means of strict social rules. For instance, Australia has a score 71 in indulgence vs. restraint while Malaysia has a score of 57.
Alyazi Helal H00283271
Fatima Yousuf H00256657
Manal Jassem H00284191
Salma Ahmed H00283751
1- Close personal relationships
In my life, I have many friends from the school and college. However, I like to have some friends that are very close to me. They close to me as my family.They understand me very well, think like me, share each other the happiness and sadnesses. I have close persons who I can talk with them without barriers. I consider my friends as one of my priority to feel safe after my family.
2- Team work preferred
I see this context represents me because I like working with others and hearing from them closely. I like to define others ideas, get feedback from them to improve myself. I believe it is a chance for me to learn new things from others experiences.
3- Better response to visual information
When I want to understand something, mostly I search pictures, videos or audio recording to comprehend things. I like to see the objects or information with motion picture photography, visual presentation and graphs. I believe my brain will save more ideas or information for a long period with visual information.
I repost this post again because when I checked it, it involved the answers twice. So, I hope it seems better 🙂
- Strong sense of insiders and outsiders H
- Specific information exists L
- Informal L
- Team and family activities preferred H
- Focus on results L
- Transparency expected L
- A lot of confidential information H
- Rules and regulations are easily accessible L
- Close personal relationships H
- General information H
- Elders/authoritative figures in control H
- “Have a go at it” philosophy L
- Individual responsibility L
- Concerned about ‘losing’ face H
- Expertise valued L
- Who you know is important H
- Focus on task H
- Emphasis on words and text L
- Strong sense of family H
- What you know is important H
- Gender roles clearly defined H
- Polite people admired H
- Reserved H
- Individual freedom valued L
- Strong sense of honour H
- Short term relationships L
- Process more important than product H
- Privacy (even when dealing with one’s own family) highly valued H
- Public admission of wrongdoing expected H
- Strong sense of respect H
- Better response to visual information H
- Gender roles less fixed L
- No direct eye contact H
- Strong sense of fairness L
- Verbal agreements H
- Values logic over feeling L
- Very rare marriage with outsiders H
- Clear division of responsibilities at work L
- Written contracts L
- Public criticism insulting H
2- The American businesswoman reaction indicate that they finished the report and they realize the importance of being on time. Also, it might reflect that Japanese businessman like to discuss and listen to employees perceptions, feelings and want to build relationship. For example, many employees like to build long-relationship.
3- I think is not nice to talk about their work at the party, they came to have a fun and talk together.
4- I agree with the manager’s rule because they were negligent and did not care about the time. And, He did his duty as manager
This will lead to make them more committed and follow the work rules strictly.
5- Spanish secretary did not committed with a time given to send the email. She was very late and negligent her duty. She did mistake which might lead to deduct from her salary. She should be attentive and responsible.
6- Personally, using the hot towel to wipe my hands is normal if I do not have tissue to clean my hands. However, after wiping my hands I will not use it again to wipe my face because might the towel is not clean and is not polite behavior front of my colleagues and this behavior might cause a strong feeling of dislike, but in some culture is common and acceptable.
2- Raise problems: they cannot advertise something lead to raise problems among people.
3- UAE religion: they cannot present the advertisements with words related to Islam, especially ” Holy Quran” or ” Prophet Mohammed talks”. They should avoid using mosques, creed and distortion of Islam.
4- Society values & tradition: they should avoid pictures and advertisements that bring negatives to UAE community or reflect a bad image about UAE and its tradition.
5- Drinks: wine and alcohols are forbidden
6- Food: they should avoid put pig in pictures, production and promotion.